There are a great deal of requirements and legalities for teachers to abide by in order to teach. They are reflection of government policies on a national level. Three key documents that outline some of these requirements and standards are The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young People.
The NSW Board of Studies BOSTES website (I reside in NSW so this is the most relevant state for me)
And ACARA which gives a detailed description of curriculum according to stages.
I have included links to these three cornerstone resources here. Within my teaching career it is of utmost importance that I continue to refer to these documents to make sure that my teaching is in line with the values and legislations present. It is also my responsibility to keep abreast of any changes that might arise regarding this in the future.